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#47916 SQA Results / UCAS Online

Posted by Phoenix on 09 August 2005 - 10:01 AM in Exam Results 2005

I wish this was all more clearly explained (or even just explained) somewhere on the site, as i think this is all making people very anxious and worried (more-so than usual) with all the possibilities that could be derived from the lack of changes to some people's UCAS forms.



#47878 SQA Results / UCAS Online

Posted by Phoenix on 09 August 2005 - 09:24 AM in Exam Results 2005

Any clues as to why come people have been updated and others haven't?

They must've had enough time to be able to update all the records that they possibly could...what other information could they be waiting for?

Still wondering what the alternative to "Accepted" or "Unconditional" is, as noone seems to have it yet! huh.gif



#47797 SQA Results / UCAS Online

Posted by Phoenix on 09 August 2005 - 08:16 AM in Exam Results 2005

Argh i am worrying though sad.gifsad.gifsad.gif



#47794 SQA Results / UCAS Online

Posted by Phoenix on 09 August 2005 - 08:12 AM in Exam Results 2005

Anyone doing a Science Faculty degree at glasgow? Have your selections been changed on the UCAS Track yet? Mine haven't sad.gif

Has anyone actually had an alteration other than to "UNCONDITIONAL" yet?



#47586 SQA Results / UCAS Online

Posted by Phoenix on 08 August 2005 - 04:41 PM in Exam Results 2005

Uh oh, I've got my UCASTRACK password but i've forgotton my username :-s can anyone tell me what form the username's supposed to be in (e.g. Jbloggs05 or J_Bloggo_05) as i'm sure i'll be able to get it from there.

Thanks!



#30146 Good Luck Everyone

Posted by Phoenix on 30 May 2005 - 08:09 AM in Computing

Good luck people smile.gif



#29832 Buffers and Spoolers

Posted by Phoenix on 29 May 2005 - 01:51 PM in Computing

You're welcome smile.gif



#29818 A Sharing of Notes

Posted by Phoenix on 29 May 2005 - 12:32 PM in Computing

Computer Performance

•Indicators of computer performance include: clock speed, MIPS and FLOPS;
•Benchmark testing is used to measure performance;
•Other factors affecting performance include: data bus width, cache memory and data transfer rates
•Increasing clock speed, memory and storage capacity may improve performance.
•The functions of an Interface are: Data conversion, Voltage conversion, Data storage, transmission of control signals and transmitting status information
•Cache memory is SRAM used to make memory access faster. Write-through cache is where the memory is updated at the same time. Write-back cache is where the memory is not updated until the cache is cleared and is faster than write-through cache
•Virtual memory is where part of the hard disk is used by the processor as if it was RAM



#29817 A Sharing of Notes

Posted by Phoenix on 29 May 2005 - 12:31 PM in Computing

Let's get back to sharing notes then shall we.....

Data Representation

• Computers store integers using the Two’s Complement system (better than signed bit as there aren't 2 ways of representing 0 and rules of arithmetic are supported)
•Real numbers are represented using Floating Point
•The range of numbers represented depends on the number of bits used for the exponent, their accuracy on the mantissa (depending on how the bits are divided - or shared out)
•8 bit ASCII is limited to 256 different symbols when representing character sets; Unicode uses 16 bits and can represent many more characters
•Graphics can be represented by Bit maps whose advantages are simplicity and pixel level editing, but whose disadvantages are size and non scalability
• Vector graphics can be used to represent objects – they can be scaled and take up less space, but cannot be edited at pixel level
•The greater the bit depth of a bit mapped graphic, the greater the file size;
•Bitmapped graphics are often compressed – using lossy (losses quality e.g. jpeg) or lossless compression (retains quality)



#29816 Buffers and Spoolers

Posted by Phoenix on 29 May 2005 - 12:30 PM in Computing

I think all you really need to remember is that: -

•A buffer is memory used to store data in transit between a peripheral and the CPU

Spooling is where data is stored on disk to compensate between the difference in speeds between the processor and the peripheral - so if you're printing something, rather than sending the information to a buffer to deal with it all at once, the data is stored on the hard disc for printing a few seconds later. The way i think of it is that this is why you are able to print say a 10 page document, but close the window and go on to do something else, where is this stored? it's stored on the hard disc - being spooled. Maybe this final definition in italics is wrong, but it's an easy way to remember the correct definition?





#28986 Buffers and Spoolers

Posted by Phoenix on 27 May 2005 - 12:14 PM in Computing

QUOTE($D$2 @ May 27 2005, 11:49 AM)

Notes from"How to Pass Higher Computing"[/i]
- Frank Frame & John Mason
- Buy at Amazon.co.uk.

View Post



I've got this book and i have to say, it'll be the difference between me getting a C and an A (hopefully tongue.gif) as my teacher has been hopeless this year.



#28306 Was this years exam harder than last years?...

Posted by Phoenix on 26 May 2005 - 08:49 AM in Biology

I think it was easier than last years!! Perhaps solely because of the Genetics question and the fact that there wasn't a single one about meiosis (was there? huh.gif)

And the essays....easiest i've ever done!!! Probably because the RNA one was the one i learned for the main prelim - it came up there, and the IAA/Pituitary one was exactly the same as i had done 2 weeks previously in the 'mini-prelim'.

If everyone in my school doesn't get at least 16/20 for the essays then there must be something wrong - best opportunity possible to get a good mark in the essays biggrin.gif



#27952 Higher Computing Help - URGENT!

Posted by Phoenix on 25 May 2005 - 03:34 PM in Computing

Summaries for networking: -

1. Common Network Protocols

•Telnet is a protocol used to connect to a remote computer
•FTP is a protocol used to transfer files to and from a remote computer
•HTTP is a protocol used to retrieve web pages and other files from a web serve
•SMTP is a protocol used to transfer email to a mail server
•POP3 is a protocol used to retrieve email from a mailbox on a mail server
•An email address consists of a username and a domain name separated by the @ symbol
•Telnet. FTP, HTTP, SMTP and POP3 all use plain text ASCII commands, although nowadays GUI front ends exist to make them easier to use
•TCP is a lower level protocol responsible for splitting a file to be transmitted into packets, each with a sequence number .
•IP is a lower layer protocol responsible for routing packets around between networks
•A combination of a port and a TCP/IP connection is called a socket and allows several virtual connections to run on one machine at the same time.

2. The OSI Networking Model

•The OSI model divides networks into seven layers
•Layers are hierarchical, transparent, and independent
•The Application layer provides interfaces for network applications
•The Presentation layer handles data format information
•The Session layer manages log-on and password authentication
•The Transport layer breaks up file into segment for transport over a network and guarantees that these segments are not lost
•The Network layer routes packets
•The Data Link layer guarantees error free transmission
•The Physical layer transmits bits over physical medium

3. IP addresses and the Domain Name Service•An IP address consists of four 8 bit numbers called octets
•An IP address can be divided into two sections – a network identifier and a host identifier.
•IP addresses can be classed as A B or C depending on the number of octets used as the host identifier
•Private IP addresses and a Proxy Server can be used on Local Area Networks to provide Network Address Translation (NAT)
•Static IP addressing is where every machine on a network has a fixed IP address
•Dynamic IP addressing is where an IP address is allocated from a pool of addresses
•The Domain Name Service translates user friendly domain names into IP addresses using Name Resolution

4. The World Wide Web (WWW)•Web pages are written using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) which is interpreted by a browser to present the page on the screen for the user.
•HTML uses tags which define elements
•The structure of an HTML page is indicated by the <html> <head> and <body> tags
•Examples of text tags are <p> <b> and <h1>
•Elements have attributes which are additional information relating to the appearance or layout of that element
•XHTML is a stricter version of HTML which requires that all documents have a type declaration, all tags are properly closed, are in lower case and are properly nested
•Microbrowsers are designed for mobile devices with small screens and low bandwidth
•Applications written for microbrowsers use the Wireless Markup Language (WML)
•Indexed search engines use programs called spiders to hunt around the web for pages which are linked to pages already in their database
•Directory based search engines rely on human reviewers to create their database of links
•Meta search engines return results from a number of different search engines

5. Implications of the WWW• E-commerce is the buying or selling of goods or services over the Internet
•The advantages to the customer are convenience and increased choice
•The advantages to the retailer are economy of scale, increased markets and automation
•Disadvantages for both parities are the possibility of fraud, and the increased need for up-to date technology
•The internet can result in social problems such as the increasing gulf between the Information Rich and the Information Poor and increased social isolation
•Tele-working has the potential to improve peoples lives by reducing the need to travel and allowing them to work in their own home in their own time.
•Video conferencing also has the potential to reduce the need for travel, but currently needs special equipment and a high bandwidth connection
•Ethical implications of the WWW include the problem of personal privacy, the ability of others to track your use of the internet and the increased use of encryption to disguise illegal activities
•The use of chatrooms by young people and their exploitation by paedophiles is also an ethical concern.
•Computers and the Internet are regulated by a number of acts of parliament in the UK. These include the Copyright Act, the Data Protection Act, the Misuse Of Computers Act and the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act

6. Network Security•Network security is always a compromise between security and convenience
•The purpose of network security is to protect data on the network, the network itself, and users of the network
•Threats to network security can be from both inside and outside an organisation
•Security inside a network is primarily enforced by user ID and password
•Security from outside is primarily enforced by ensuring that there is only one point of contact with the outside world
•The hardware and software resources which a user has access to are determined by the restriction policy linked to their ID
•Encrypting data files on a network can add a further level of security
•Hardware solutions to security concerns include physically locking up workstations, servers and backup tapes. User IDs can also be linked to biometric security systems
•Using a switched network, and making sure that wireless networks are secure reduces the chances of Ethernet packets being intercepted by someone who has managed to connect a rogue machine into the network.
•Wireless networks need to be configured to make them secure.
•Network servers and stations need to be protected from virus attack using anti-virus software. The anti-virus software should be kept up to date with virus signatures
•A firewall is software which blocks attack from outside, and restricts the transfer of packets from inside a network by examining the source and destination IP address and port number of every packet which passes through it

7. Denial of Service Attacks and Disaster Recovery•Denial of Service attacks are attempts to reduce the resources available to legitimate users of a server.
•DoS attacks can be physical attacks, or exploitation of careless network management.
•An example of the exploitation of software flaws is where the hacker crashes the server and then gains access via a debug mode.
•Resource starvation is where the server is flooded with ping messages or attacked with a virus or a worm
•DNS attacks are where DNS servers are used to launch a resource starvation attack.
•The effects of a DoS attack are loss of business, loss of trust, inconvenience and expense
•The reasons for a DoS attack may be political, economic or malicious.
•Disaster can be avoided by keeping regular and reliable backups and making sure that a robust backup strategy is in place.
•Backup tapes should normally be taken off site and kept in a secure location
•Hardware solutions include duplicate equipment, uninterruptible power supplies, and disk mirroring or RAID servers.

8. Data Transmission
•Bandwidth is normally described in terms of Kbps (Kilobits per second) or Mbps (Megabits per second)
•Asynchronous data transmission transmits one byte at a time along with start and stop bits
•Synchronous data transmission is more efficient because blocks of data are larger and less control information needs to be included
•Circuit switching maintains a fixed connection between two points while data is being transferred
•Packet switching is “Connectionless” because data is routed in packets which may take different routes
•The Ethernet standard uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) to ensure that packets of data do not interfere with each other on a network segment
•A switched Ethernet network has less collisions and is more secure because the switch effectively divides the network up into a number of separate segments
•Every Network Interface Card (NIC) has a unique MAC address to identify it. This is separate from the IP address which is controlled by software.
•Parity, Checksums and Cyclic Redundancy Checks are all methods of error detection in data transmission – all involve additional data being transmitted
•A Dialup Internet connection uses a modem and can achieve a maximum of 56Kbps
•An ISDN line and terminal adapter provides two 64Kbps digital channels and one 16Kbps control line
•An ADSL line is programmed to operate between two specific locations and can provide 2Mbps download and 128Kbps upload bandwidth. ADSL bandwidth may be shared between a number of users.
•A Cable modem provides similar bandwidth to an ADSL line but uses Television distribution cable to provide the connection
•A leased line provides a guaranteed 1.54 Mbps digital connection between two specific locations but is by far the most expensive option

9. Wireless Data Applications
•Wireless networking is still a relatively new technology and there are a wide variety of standards available to implement Personal, Local or Wide area networks.
•Personal wireless area networks tend to be low bandwidth and short range and are used for linking portable communications equipment
•Wireless local area networks tend to be high bandwidth and medium range and are used for connecting portable machines to conventional cabled networks or replacing cabled networks
•Wireless wide area networks tend to be mid bandwidth and high range and are used to provide broadband services to users who do not have access to wired systems.


Hope that helps smile.gif



#27937 Higher Physics 2005 Discussion

Posted by Phoenix on 25 May 2005 - 03:25 PM in Physics

I only managed 15/20 for the multi-choice sad.gif

A large number of my marks are going to come from simply putting down formulae (well, for one of the questions anyway). The question, in question tongue.gif, is 27b(1) where i got -1V as the answer and i believe the answer was +1V huh.gif

Oh well, should get a B



#27622 HELP NEEDED

Posted by Phoenix on 25 May 2005 - 08:10 AM in Computing

QUOTE(pseudotoxic @ May 24 2005, 06:32 PM)
My book reads:

Fetch instruction
Update program counter
Decode instruction
Load operands
Execute operation
Store results

View Post




I don't think that this one is suitable to learn as the question is usually along the lines of "What part to the registers play in the fetch/execute proces/cycle..."

Mine or Sparky's seem a good bet (as they're pretty much the same).



#27128 Higher Physics 2005 Discussion

Posted by Phoenix on 24 May 2005 - 03:21 PM in Physics

My Multi-choice answers (i know that at least 4 of them are incorrect sad.gif)

1. A
2. E
3. C
4. B
5. E
6. B
7.C
8.D
9.A
10.D
11.D
12.D
13.B
14.B
15.A
16.B
17.D
18.D
19.A
20.D

There were some very straightforward bits, otherwise were extremely difficult (for the rest of the paper that is) mad.gif



#26996 HELP NEEDED

Posted by Phoenix on 24 May 2005 - 07:04 AM in Computing

The Fetch Execute cycle:
-Copy Program Counter to Memory Address Register
-Activate Read line
-Transfer data from memory to Memory Data Register
-Increment Program Counter
-Transfer instruction form Memory Data Register to Instruction Register
-Decode Instruction
-Execute Instruction


Hope that helps



#26951 Lasers

Posted by Phoenix on 23 May 2005 - 09:23 PM in Physics

Wedge, one thing they might ask you is why there's parallel mirrors and why one of them is fully silvered, whereas the other is partially silvered. They are parallel to ensure that only photons travelling in an exact straight line down the middle are reflected back, which leads to a more intense laser. I wasn't sure about the partially silvered part, but my teacher told me it was simply to allow some of the particles to escape.

Are you also short on notes for Stimulated emission/spontanious emission?



#26934 Higher Physics 2005 Discussion

Posted by Phoenix on 23 May 2005 - 09:06 PM in Physics

Eh, pretty much anything, haha nevermind, it's a silly question..i just have difficult remembering all the Capacitor charging, Intensity v 1/d(squared), E.m.f, etc. graphs, but i suppose there's now way round it



#26915 HELP NEEDED

Posted by Phoenix on 23 May 2005 - 08:42 PM in Computing

For the Software Development process here's a great link, it's good for adding your own notes to as well: -

http://www.kelso.scotborders.sch.uk/depart...ps/softedev.gif

Give it a shot, print it off and see how useful it can be, it's got all the item you need to focus on in SD, just add some definitions and your sorted...now just need something like this for Multimedia and Systems wink.gif



#26911 Higher Physics 2005 Discussion

Posted by Phoenix on 23 May 2005 - 08:39 PM in Physics

Ooooo, anyone got a good technique for remembering graphs by any chance? I tried memorising a few of the shapes but is there an easier way?



#26908 Higher Physics 2005 Discussion

Posted by Phoenix on 23 May 2005 - 08:36 PM in Physics

I doubt there will be, through all the past papers i've done there's only been 2 questions on them, one was asking you to describe the parts of it (simply name them), the other was asking you what it was, the answer being a MOSFET.

There's not very much they can ask you on it, so i wouldn't worry too much about it...I'm more worried about being asked to draw a graph on a chargin/discharging capacitor, i know what it is that i want to draw, but the outcome on paper is always entirely different huh.gif

The only other problem area of mine is op-amps (i must have been sleeping for a couple of weeks in December - i blame Christmas) but i've got a good revision schedule on those planned for tomorrow, and it's basically just remembering a couple of explanations smile.gif



#25479 Higher Biology

Posted by Phoenix on 20 May 2005 - 01:26 PM in Biology

QUOTE(werlop @ May 20 2005, 11:10 AM)
Bet your glad we don't have to remember Krebs cycle in full:

user posted image

View Post




Haha, now that woulda been much easier to remember tongue.gif



#25477 Higher Biology

Posted by Phoenix on 20 May 2005 - 01:24 PM in Biology

They publish them every year, no idea when though!

Eh, yes, i think it was just the effects on growth, but for pituitary hormones you'd have to describe the process, ie. GH produced by pituitary, stimulates increase in bones etc, then TSH stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroxine which promotes groth by increasing metabolic rate/rate of reactions....

Oh and i went to my school AGAIN today, and they could only offer me Human Biology papers huh.gif



#25366 Higher Biology

Posted by Phoenix on 20 May 2005 - 08:29 AM in Biology

Yeah, that's what i meant, oh well, only a mark lost...wish i'd looked at something about that beforehand.

I never really took it as any more than acetyl CoA, i never thought about the two being seperate things, and i've never seen it in it's structural form either.

Thanks for the link