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Intensive Peasant Farming - HSN forum

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Intensive Peasant Farming


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#1 Shaun

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 07:05 PM

Intensive Peasant Farming:

This type of farming takes place in south and south east Asia (i.e. the Ganges Valley in India). The farmer makes sure the earth banks are in good condition and are able to retain the water. The seeds are sown in nursery beds and are transplanted to the paddy fields later.
The paddy fields are flooded to a depth of several centimetres and is hoed. The seedlings are then transplanted into the fields when they are a few weeks old. It is important to ensure the seedlings are the correct distance apart to ensure maximum yield.
The rice takes approximately 100 days to grow and requires temperatures in excess of 20 degrees Celsius. It is important to make sure that the upper part of the plant is above the water. Once the rice is ready, the fields are allowed to dry out and the rice begins to ripen.
Harvesting is done by hand using a knife or sickle.

Key points:
  • Slopes are terraced to get the maximum space out of the land. These terraces are man made and take a while to construct.
  • Bunds are used to separate the flooded fields, to ensure the water is retained.
  • There are many workers on the fields (hence the word 'intensive'), planting and harvesting crops (i.e. wet rice) there is little or no mechanism.
  • Rice is harvested using a knife or sickle.
  • Takes place in south and south-east Asia.


Content created by Shaun Priest.

#2 werlop

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 09:24 PM

Hey great notes, while we are on the subject of farming here are the notes that I made last year for the farming topic. I could actually contribute quite a lot of geography to this site I have just realised!

Extensive Commercial Farming

Where
• Great Plains of the USA
• Prairie Provinces of Canada
• Areas of FLAT land

• Originally land divided up, but as people left amalgamation of farms occurred.

Characteristics
• Large areas of land available for cultivation
• Low crop yields, but very high scale production
• Monoculture of cereal crops in huge fields CASH CROPS (maize/wheat)
• High reliance on machinery and technology permitted by the large flat areas of land.
• Relatively low labour requirement
• Planted in Autumn, growth in summer months
• Harvested in late summer, contractors may be used
• Harvest stored in silos before being distributed
• Marginal climate not suited to more intensive types of farming.
• Land is cheap enabling large areas to be purchased
• Low population density – little pressure on land for other needs

Changes
• Steps being taken to tackle soil erosion:
o Strip cultivation
o Contour Ploughing
o Shelter belts
o Rows of sunflowers
• Diversification of farming
• Reduction in the monoculture of wheat
• Introduction of organic farming – helps reduce mono culture
• Diversification can provide job security, although there is still a declining farming population
• New crops means greater dependence on contractors to harvest the new crops introduced into this farming system.

Shifting Cultivation

Characteristics
• Sustainable farming system because of the low population density
• Practiced in rainforest areas, e.g. Amazonia

• Clearing made in rainforest by cutting down / burning trees
• Large trees left because of difficulty of removal, they also provide protection
• Fruit bearing trees left as they are a source of food
• Houses may be built in the clearings
• Ash is scattered to improve fertility after the trees have been burned
• Little fertiliser used. This means nutrient levels quickly drop. Land must be abandoned after 3 / 4 years
• Plot may be revisited to harvest fruit which was planted
• Labour Intensive
• Little machinery (perhaps chain saws)
• Crops planted using digging sticks
• Crops often planted between remaining tree roots
• Land left fallow so nutrients can become re-established while a new clearing is cultivated.
• Process repeated

Changes
• All relate to the destruction of the rainforest
o Logging - Mahogany
o Mining – iron ore, bauxite
o Ranching
o Dams – Hydro Electric Power
o Road Building – Trans-Amazonian Highway
• Areas previously used for shifting cultivation are destroyed
• Shorter fallow periods – land has less tine to recover
• Likelihood of land degradation increased dramatically
• Loss of traditional ways of life
• Opposition to “westernisation”
• Migration to towns – overcrowding
• Loss of biodiversity – wildlife
• Only solutions involve changing how they live

Intensive Peasant Farming

Characteristics
• Monsoon lands of Asia, e.g. Thailand / India
• Very small areas of land, but very intensely cultivated
• Small fields
• Steep terraced hillside – increased area available for crops in a mountainous area
• Soil bunds – helps to retain water in the paddy fields
• Flooded fields – necessary for growth of young rice plants
• Water Buffalo – lack of finance for machines
• Landscape makes machines impractical
• Labour intensive – many workers
• Rice crop – staple food – many harvests a year – supports very high population density
• Rice seeds grown in nursery beds before being planted as seedlings in the flooded fields
• Water is drained as the grain ripens
• Harvest done by hand using sickles
• Villagers often live close to the paddy fields in nucleated settlements

Changes – The Green Revolution

• The changes in intensive peasant farming are basically the result of the green revolution
• Use of HYV or crops (rice, wheat and maize)
• Increased use of pesticides and fertilizers
• Improvements in irrigation
• Increased mechanisation
• Improved infrastructure – buildings, roads, electricity, etc
• Reduction in the use of cattle
• Subsistence to commercial farming

Positive Effects
• Higher yields means people are better fed
• Surplus crops can be sold
• Faster growing crops allow several crops per year
• Yields are more reliable, and crops can be disease resistant
• Irrigation allows harvests on increasingly marginal land
• Enhanced quality of life

Negative Effects
• HYV crops, irrigation, and machinery are very expensive, greatly increased costs result
• Only rich farmers can therefore benefit
• Those who cannot afford to modernise become uncompetitive, run into debt, and are forced of their land
• Overuse of irrigation leads to salinisation of land
• HYV crops are susceptible to pest damage
• Increased use of pesticides kills of wildlife
• Mechanisation and farm amalgamations leads to unemployment in an area which is already far beyond its carrying capacity
• Chemical fertilisers can cause pollution


By David Brooks
Click here to visit the Bearsden Academy Website
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If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But make allowance for their doubting too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And--which is more--you'll be a Man, my son!

#3 Ally

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 09:29 PM

lol, not read through them. But them combined look like a good set of notes!

#4 werlop

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 09:39 PM

I did things like that for all of geography last year, I would submit them, but the only thing is they are small bullet pointed notes, they don't really help you unless you have a vague idea of the subject already.

What do you think? I guess they could be worthwhile anyway.
Click here to visit the Bearsden Academy Website
user posted image


If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But make allowance for their doubting too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And--which is more--you'll be a Man, my son!

#5 Ally

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 09:41 PM

I didn't do Geography, but they certainly look good!

#6 werlop

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 09:48 PM

I went a bit crazy before the exam last year, the notes I created total over 8000 words!
Click here to visit the Bearsden Academy Website
user posted image


If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But make allowance for their doubting too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And--which is more--you'll be a Man, my son!

#7 George

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 10:01 PM

I think that could make a good addition to the site, and there would be more interest in the site from people doing Geography, so we'd be more likely to receive even more notes smile.gif

#8 werlop

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Posted 01 February 2005 - 11:49 PM

Well, I have notes for all the topics if you want them. Mind you the course did change a bit this year I believe.

I'll get back you after my prelims about this.
Click here to visit the Bearsden Academy Website
user posted image


If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But make allowance for their doubting too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And--which is more--you'll be a Man, my son!

#9 sparky

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Posted 05 February 2005 - 02:54 PM

I am studying H Geog this year and the only content change I am aware of is :-

Coasts being introduced e.q. Wave Cut Platforms, Arches, Stacks etc
The Biosphere unit being cut down to only Soils and Plant Succession.

The rest of the course is really the same!! The notes on farming you two done seem pretty well constructed - certainly summarise the notes we wrote in class - even I think go into a bit more detail on Extensive Commericial Farming!! biggrin.gif

The exam has changed tho :-

Only 6 questions in CORE paper - 2 units will not be examined.
APPLICATIONS re-named GEOGRAPHICAL ISSUES. (may be a 'coasts' application i am not sure!)
Mark

#10 Shaun

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Posted 05 February 2005 - 05:11 PM

Don't forget 'chalk' has been taken out of the course. I believe this was originally in Lithosphere?

#11 sparky

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Posted 05 February 2005 - 07:58 PM

Oh yes, it's been cut down as well - forgot about that!

Lithosphere now consists of Glaciation, Carboniferous Limestone and Coasts.

The application "rural land resources" has now been made to reflect "coasts".
Mark





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